RESEARCH ARTICLE


In vivo Anti-Plasmodium Activity and Toxicity of Afzelia bipindensis and Senna Siamea Extracts: A Murine Model



Mbah N. L. Javeres1, 2, *, Syed M. Nurulain2, Oumarou G. Hamadama1, 3, Haris J. Bello2, Anas Muazu2
1 Institute of Medical Research and Medical Plants Studies, Ministry of Scientific research, Yaounde, Cameroon
2 Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University, Islamabad, Pakistan
3 Department of Microbiology, University of Yaounde 1, Yaounde, Cameroon


© 2019 Leonel Javeres et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode). This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address corresponding to this author at the Institute of Medical Research and Medical Plants Studies, Ministry of Scientific research Yaoundé, Cameroon;
Tel: +237 699011394/ +92 3115002198; E-mail: mbahjl@yahoo.fr


Abstract

Background:

Malaria, a parasitosis affecting man, remains a public health problem in developing countries where morbidity and mortality are very high. Afzelia bipindensis and Senna siamea are two plants used in the treatment of malaria in different African countries including Cameroon.

Objective:

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity of hydroethanolic leaves extracts of Afzelia bipindensis and Senna siamea, from Northern Cameron using Plasmodium berghei and to investigate the acute and sub-acute toxicity of leaves extracts in a rodent model.

Methods:

The four days Peter’s suppressive test was used to evaluate the antiplasmodial activity and the OCDE 423 and 412 guidelines were applied to evaluate acute and sub-acute toxicity. Biochemical tests related to hepatic, cardiac and renal toxicity were also assessed.

Results:

The leaves’ extracts of Afzelia bipindensis at doses 180, 360, 720 mg/kg and Senna siamea at doses of 100, 200, 400 mg/kg have shown significant antiplasmodial activity (P) with parasite reduction ≈ 50%. No mortality of rats was observed at the tested doses. The biochemical analysis did not reveal any statistically significant difference when compared with control. However, ALT was statistically increased at a higher dose (720 mg/kg) of Afzelia bipindensis leaves extract. On the other hand, there was a significant decrease in triglycerides at 360 mg/kg and 720 mg/kg

Conclusion:

It is concluded that daily consumption of leaves extract of Afzelia bipindensis and Senna siamea are without significant risks to human health, favoring the use of these products in the treatment of malaria.

Keywords: Malaria, Afzelia bipindensis, Senna siamea, Extracts, Toxicity, Triglycerides.