RESEARCH ARTICLE


HPLC and HPLC-MS Analysis of Intestinal Elimination and Phase 2 Metabolism of 4'-hydroxy-4-Methoxychalcone and its Bis-Mannich Analog In The Rat



Aline Bernardes1, 2, Mónika Kuzma2, 3, Attila Almási2, Mátyás Mayer3, Caridad Noda Pérez4, Pál Perjési2, *
1 Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Mato Grosso, Cuiabá, Brazil
2 Institute of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
3 Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary
4 Institute of Chemistry, Federal University of Goiás, Goiânia, Brazil


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Creative Commons License
© 2022 Bernardes et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry University of Pecs, Postal address: H-7624 Pécs, Rókus u. 2, Hungary; Tel: +36 72 503 626; Fax: +36 72 503 627; E-mail: pal.perjesi@gytk.pte.hu


Abstract

Aims:

The aim was to study the elimination and Phase 2 biotransformation of 4'-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone (1) and its bis-Mannich analog (2) in the small intestine of the rat.

Background:

Earlier studies indicated that chalcones are promising starting points for drug design. Aminomethylation of drugs is considered to improve their delivery into the human body.

Objectives:

To set up validated HPLC-UV methods to quantitate the investigated chalcones in the rat intestinal perfusates. Comparison of intestinal disappearance and Phase 2 metabolic profile of the 4’-hydroxychalcone (1) and a bis-Mannich analog (2).

Methods:

Chalcones 1 and 2 were luminally perfused in the small intestine of rats at a concentration of 240 μM and 280 μM, respectively. Analysis of the collected intestinal perfusate samples was performed by a validated HPLC-UV method. Using HPLC-MS, the samples were analyzed for Phase 2 metabolites as well.

Results:

Elimination kinetics of the two 4’-hydroxychalcones displayed characteristic differences having the nonpolar chalcone 1 higher elimination rate over the 90-minute ex vivo experiments. HPLC-MS analysis of the perfusates indicated the presence of glucuronide, sulfate, and glutathione conjugates in the parent molecules. Intestinal disappearance and sulfation of the bis-Mannich derivative 2 showed characteristic differences compared to 1

Conclusion:

The results demonstrate, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time, how the title structural modification of phenolic chalcones affects intestinal elimination and Phase 2 metabolism of the compounds

Highlights:

Study on ex vivo intestinal elimination of a 4'-hydroxy-4-methoxychalcone and its bis-Mannich analog.

Development of validated HPLC-UV methods for quantitation of 4’-hydroxychalcone derivatives in rat intestinal perfusates.

HPLC-MS identification of Phase 2 metabolites of 4’-hydroxychalcones in rat intestinal perfusates.

Keywords: Hydroxychalcones, Mannich bases, HPLC, HPLC-MS, Intestinal absorption, Intestinal metabolism.