Monitoring by HPLC of Chamomile Flavonoids Exposed to Rat Liver Microsomal Metabolism

Georg Petroianu1, Éva Szőke2, Huba Kalász3, Péter Szegi4, Rudolf Laufer3, Bernadett Benkő5, Ferenc Darvas6, Kornélia Tekes*, 4
1 Department of Cell Biology, Florida International University, Miami, FL, USA
2 Department of Pharmacognosy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
3 Department of Pharmacology and Pharmacotherapy, Semmelweis University, Budapest, Hungary
4 Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University, 1089 Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4, Hungary
5 Division of Pharmacology and Drug Safety, Richter Gedeon Rt. Budapest, Hungary
6 CommInnex Zrt., Budapest, Hungary

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© A.A. El Maghraby; Licensee Bentham Open.

open-access license: This is an open access article licensed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( which permits unrestricted, non-commercial use, distribution and reproduction in any medium, provided the work is properly cited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Pharmacodynamics, Semmelweis University, 1089 Budapest, Nagyvárad tér 4, Hungary; E-mail:


Three major flavonoid chamomile components (quercetin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside and rutin) were subjected to oxidative metabolism by cytochrome P-450 of rat liver microsomal preparations. Changes over time in their respective concentrations were followed using reversed-phase HPLC with UV detection. No clean-up had to be applied as only the specific flavonoid had to be separated from the background components originating from the rat liver microsome.

Neither the concentration of apigenin-7-O-glucoside nor that of the diglycoside rutin decreased during one hour of exposure to rat microsomal treatment. In contrast, the concentration of quercetin, a lipophilic aglycon, decreased.

Our analytical HPLC results complement the in silico calculated lipophilicity (logP) of these compounds; the relatively high lipophilicity of quercetin appears to predispose it to oxidative metabolism in order to decrease its fat solubility. In contrast the much less lipophilic compounds apigenin-7-O-glucoside and rutin were resistant in vitro to microsomal treatment.

Keywords: Microsomal treatment, cytochrome P-450 dependent oxidation, HPLC, quercetin, apigenin-7-O-glucoside, rutin.