Redox State of Human Serum Albumin and Inflammatory Biomarkers in Hemodialysis Patients with Secondary Hyperparathyroidism During Oral Calcitriol Supplementation for Vitamin D

Wesam A. Nasif 1, 2, *, Mohammed H. Mukhtar1, Hoda M. El-Emshaty3, Ahmed H. Alwazna4
1 Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
2 Molecular Biology Department, Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology Research Institute, Sadat City University, Sadat City, Egypt
3 Research Laboratories, Gastroenterology Surgical Center, Faculty of Medicine, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt
4 Consultant Nephrologist, Nephrology Unit, Al-Rahma Hospital, Madinah, Saudi Arabia

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© 2018 Nasif et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4. 0 International Public License (CC-BY 4. 0), a copy of which is available at: https://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4. 0/legalcode. This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

* Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Umm Al-Qura University, Makkah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia; Tel: 00966566526609; E-mail:,



Hemodialysis (HD) patients with secondary Hyperparathyroidism (s-HPT) are exposed to increased inflammation and oxidative stress. In HD patients, oxidized albumin is a reliable marker of oxidative stress and its clinical significance has been rarely studied.


The objective of this study was to evaluate Cys34 Human Serum Albumin (HSA) as oxidative stress biomarker in HD patients with s-HPT and its relationship with inflammation on bone turnover markers during oral calcitriol supplementation for vitamin D.

Patients and Methods:

Fifteen stable hemodialysis patients with s-HPT (mean age 48.67±8.15, 11 males and 4 females) were used in the experiment to receive calcitriol treatment for 16 weeks (0.25mcg or 0.5 mcg once a day according to serum level of Ca and P for each). The changes in the serum biochemical parameters (Ca, P, ALP, and iPTH), inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6 levels) and serum oxidative stress condition (SOD, IS and albumin ratio HNA/HMA) were evaluated before and at 8 and 16 weeks of calcitriol treatment. The correlations between those factors were studied.


All patients responded to oral calcitriol therapy, with a significant decrease in the serum iPTH. The results showed that calcitriol could effectively suppress iPTH secretion with a significant elevation of serum Ca and P but ALP remained unchanged during the study. It can also effectively reduce the inflammatory markers (CRP and IL-6), while increasing the oxidative markers (SOD and IS). Oxidative albumin ratio HNA/HMA showed a significant (p=0.001) reduction after 16 weeks of calcitriol treatment and the redox state of HSA showed a positive prediction for hyperparathyroidism and for inflammation.


The redox state of HSA could be used as a predictor for monitoring hyperparathyroidism and inflammation during calcitriol treatment by retarding albumin oxidation in HD patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism.

Keywords: Human serum albumin, Vitamin D receptor activator, Hemodialysis patients, HPLC, Hyperparathyroidism, Oxidative albumin ratio.